In the seventeenth century, Poland passed the various armed conflicts. Our country was involved, among others in a war with Russia, Turkey and Sweden. In addition, Ukrainian Cossack an insurrection broke out led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
In these times of responsibility of the Polish army was able to produce a strong fight off relentless attacks enemies. It is from this period are the most brilliant victory, which depend heavily on the modern and novel structure of the military and their proper use in the battlefield.To then took place the famous battle of Vienna and Czestochowa. However, this was associated with large changes in driving relation to the infantry in the Polish armed forces and the growth of private armies borderland magnates. Until today, the inspiration for many screenwriters is widely acclaimed appearance in the contemporary world, an outstanding cavalry Polish - hussars. In 1618 was first used, so popular in the second half of the century dragoon, infantry or cavalry, trainee in the fight on foot and horseback. 9 years later, during the Polish-Swedish war of infantry and dragoons size exceeded number of Polish driving. Undoubtedly had an impact on the nature of the enemy and the territory where the war was conducted, also testified that the change qualitative in nature led war and the rest of the century ride was more or less half of the total composition of the army. Ratio of the combined together high mobility of the army and the necessary firepower.
An important change in the financing of mercenary troops in 1652 led to the introduction of the so-called. „komput” that is the total amount of troops employed issued by the state - the previously affected only comput supernumerary troops. This involved the introduction in 1637 of a new quarter for the purposes intended artillery (Quarta dupla). „Komput Army” - whose numbers was a mystery (he was a special delegation be adopted by parliament), had in peacetime 12 thousand. for the Crown and six thousand. for Lithuania, and during the war, 24-40 thousand. for the Crown, and 8-22 thousand. for Lithuania. Decentralization and the need to maintain armed forces in any region due to the unstable situation on the border south and east, and the need to keep the peasants in obedience resulted in the so-called. „poviat soldier” - issued and maintained by the county council. These units were operated similarly to branches issued centrally.
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